sábado, 27 de febrero de 2010

Vedanta Sutra - Volumen - Sutra 12 (03-1-12)

Sri Vedanta-sutra

Sütra 12

sukåta-duñkåte eveti tu bädariù

sukåta - pious deeds; duñkåte - impious deeds; eva - indeed; iti - thus; tu - but; bädariù - Bädari.

But Bädari Muni indeed thinks it means pious and impious deeds.

Purport by Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa

The word "tu" (but} is used here to begin a refutation of the previous argument. Bädari Muni thinks the word "caraëa" here means "pious and impious deeds". An example of this is the sentence:

puëyaà karmäcarati

"He performs pious deeds"

In this sentence the verb "carati" is used to mean "performs karmas". If a word's primary meaning is possible, then it is not appropriate to accept the secondary meaning. Therefore the word "caraëa" here means karma", and any other interpretation of it is meaningless. "Caraëa" (good conduct) is merely a specific kind of karma. Caraëa and karma are thus different in the same way the Kurus and Päëavas are different. The word "eva" (indeed) hints that this is also the opinion of the author of the sütras. Therefore, since "caraëa" is a specific kind of karma, it is proved that the soul departing from Svargaloka is accompanied by the remainder of its karma.

Adhikaraëa 3

Do the Impious Also Go to Candraloka?

Introduction by Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa

Thus it has been said that a person who performs pious deeds goes to Candraloka and then again returns with the remainder of his karma. Now will be discussed whether sinners who perform no pious deeds also go and return in the same way. In Iça Upaniñad (3) it is said:

äsüryä näma te lokä

andhena tamasävrtäù

täàs te pretyäbhigacchanti

ye ke cätma-hano janäù

"The killer of the soul, whoever he may be, must enter into the planets known as the worlds of the faithless, full of darkness and ignorance."*

Saàçaya (doubt): Do the sinners go to Candraloka or Yamaloka?

Pürvapakña (the opponent speaks): The opponent gives his opinion in the following sütra.

Sütra 13

aniñt_ädi-käriëäm api ca çrutam

an - not; iñt_a - pious deeds; ädi - beginning with; käriëäm - of the performers; api - also; ca - and; çrutam - inthe Çruti-çästra.

The Çruti-çästra declares that it is also so for they who do not perform iñt_a or other pious deeds.

Purport by Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa

The Çruti-çästra declares that they who perform iñt_a and other pious deeds, as well as they who do not perform iñt_a and other pious deeds, both go to Candraloka. This is explained in the Kauçétaki Upaniñad (1.2):

ye vai ke casmäl lokät prayänti candramasam eva te sarve gacchanti

"All who leave this world go to Candraloka."

Since with these words the Çruti-çästra declares that all, withoutdistinction, go to Candraloka, then sinners are also included in that all. This being so, the words of Iça Upaniñad are only an empty threat to frighten the sinners from acting badly. In truth the pious and the sinner both attain the same result. To this I reply: No. It is not so. The sinner does not enjoy happiness.

Siddhänta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sütras gives His conclusion.

Sütra 14

samyamane tv anubhüyetareñäm ärohävarohau tad-gati-darçanät

samyamane - in Samyamani Puri; tv - but; anubhüya - experiencing; itareñäm - of others; äroha - ascent; avarohau - descent; tat - of them; gati - travel; darçanät - bythe Çruti-çästra.

But the others go to and return from Samyamana-pura. the Çruti-çästra describes this as their travels.

Purport by Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa

The word "tu" (but) is used here to begin the refutation of the Pürvapakña. The word "itareñäm" (of the others) here means "of they who did not perform iñt_a and other pious deeds". The word "samyamane" means in the city of Yamaräja". That is where they go. There they are punished by Yamaräja and then sent back to the earth. Their departure and return is like that. Why do you say that? The sütra explains: "tad-gati-darçanät" (Because Çruti-çästra describes this as their travels). In the Kat_ha Upaniñad (1.2.6) Yamaräja explains:

na samparäyaù pratibhäti bälaà pramädyantaà vitta-mohena müòham

ayam loko nästi para iti mäné punaù punar vaçam äpadyate me

"The path to liberation does not appear before a childish fool intoxicated by the illusory wealth of this world. He who thinks, `This is the only world. There is no world beyond this,' falls into my control again and again."

In this way the Çruti-çästra explains that the sinners are punished by Yamaräja. That is the meaning.

Sütra 15

smaranti ca

smaranti - the Småti-çästra; ca - also.

The Småti-çästras also affirm it.

Purport by Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa

Çrémad-Bhägavatam (3.30.23) explains:

tatra tatra patan chränto

mürchitaù punar utthitaù

pathä päpéyasä nétas

tarasä yama-sädanam

"While passing on that road to the abode of Yamaräja, he falls down in fatigue, and sometimes he becomes unconscious, but he is forced to rise again. In this way he is very quickly brought to the presence of Yamaräja."*

In the Småti-çästra it is also said:

sarve caite vaçaà yänti yamasya bhagavan.

"O Lord, all sinners come under Yamaräja's dominion."

In this way the sages and Småti-çästras affirm that the sinners come under Yamaräja's control.

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

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